Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and its impact on cancer care

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) or drug resistance, including antibiotic resistance, is a growing public health issue and needs urgent attention in countries around the world.

Anti-microbial resistance was associated with 4.95 million deaths in 2019 and a reported 1.27 million people died as a direct result of drug-resistant infections. This number could reach ten million/yearand cause an overall cost of $100 trillion to the global economy by 2050.[1]

Antimicrobial resistance also causes a strain on health systems.[2] Many studies have demonstrated the financial consequences of AMR, including extremely high healthcare costs due to an increase in hospital admissions, longer hospital stays, more intensive care units and isolation beds, and expensive, intensive therapy.[3] Healthcare professionals are also forced to use less conventional antibiotics or a combination of different antibiotics to treat these infections, which are usually more expensive and which could also have serious side effects.

Furthermore, according to the FAO, if the issue of AMR is not addressed urgently,  tens of millions more people will be forced into extreme poverty, hunger and malnutrition.

World Antimicrobial Awareness Week

World Antimicrobial Awareness Week (WAAW) is celebrated from 18-24 November every year to improve awareness and understanding of Antimicrobial resistance. The 2022 theme is 'Preventing Antimicrobial Resistance Together'. It encourages all sectors to use antimicrobials prudently and aims at strengthening preventive measures addressing AMR.

What is antimicrobial resistance?

Antimicrobial resistance happens when microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites) develop the ability to continue to grow, even when they are exposed to antimicrobial medicines that are meant to kill them or limit their growth (such as antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, antimalarials, and anthelmintics).

As a result, the medicines become ineffective and infections persist in the body, increasing the risk of spread to others. While antimicrobial resistance refers to all microbes that resist treatments designed to destroy them, antibiotic resistance specifically deals with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics.

Usually, the more often antibiotics are used, the more bacteria adapt and find new ways to survive, which means they become resistant to antibiotics. Instead of being killed by the antibiotics, some bacteria survive and continue to multiply, causing more harm. Antibiotics are used in the treatment of many diseases and surgical procedure. Examples include organ transplants, blood infections, complicated deliveries, pneumonia and in cancer care (see ReAct Group).  Therefore, patients with infections caused by these drug-resistant bacteria are at an increased risk of poorer clinical outcomes, including death.

Did you know? Currently, at least 1.27 million people die every year due to drug-resistant infections. (Source: reactgroup.org)

Overuse and misuse of anti-microbial medicines are major factors that have contributed to the development of drug-resistant microbes. In many places, antibiotics are overused and misused in people and animals, and often given without professional oversight. Examples of misuse include when they are taken by people with viral infections like colds and flu, and when they are given as growth promoters in animals or used to prevent diseases in healthy animals.[4]

Another major reason for the development of drug resistance is the lack of access to timely and appropriate treatments for infections, especially in LMIC.

Did you know? Out of 25 new antibiotics developed between 1999 and 2014,
only 12 were registered in more than 10 countries.

Did you know? According to a recent survey by the European Association of Hospital Pharmacists, 63% of hospital pharmacists listed antimicrobial medicines most frequently in shortages, while medicines for cancer were second on the list. (read more)

Other important contributing factors include inadequate infection control, a lack of access to affordable and appropriate diagnostics that give accurate and real-time results and substandard/falsified medicines.

In June 2020, WHO expressed their concern that the increasing trend of antimicrobial resistance will further be fuelled by the inappropriate use of antibiotics during the COVID-19 pandemic.

How antibiotic resistance develops

Antibiotics get less effective

Antibiotics help our bodies to kill the types of bacteria that make us sick.

Antibiotic resistance

Some of the bacteria that make us sick get better at defending themselves against antibiotics, meaning resistant bacteria are harder to kill. This is called antibiotic resistance.​

Antibiotics help our bodies to kill bacteria that makes us sick

The resistant bacteria start to multiply, making our antibiotics less and less effective.

Image source: PHARMAC, NZ - https://www.pharmac.govt.nz/keepantibioticsworking/

 

Causes of antimicrobial resistance

 

How does antibiotic resistance impact cancer care outcomes?

The second leading cause of death in patients with cancer is infection.

AMR also undermines key advances being made in cancer care by adversely affecting cancer treatment outcomes and threatening the survival of people living with cancer. 

There has been substantial progress in cancer care in the past decades, with key advances in surgery, radiotherapy and medicines, including newer immunotherapies. The significant and growing threat of drug-resistant bacteria, however, is undermining all the above-mentioned efforts in cancer treatment. In fact, cancer care is highly affected by AMR. People with cancer are more susceptible to infections due to the lowering of immune defences, while surgery and treatments like bone marrow transplants, radiotherapy and chemotherapy put the immune system under immense pressure.

As many as 1 in 5 cancer patients undergoing treatment are hospitalised due to infection, and antibiotics are the main line of defence.[5]  Pneumonia and sepsis (as a result of bacterial infection of the blood) are among the most frequent causes of admission to intensive care units for cancer patients. In fact,  the reason for about one in ten cancer deaths is  severe sepsis – and not the cancer itself.[6]

Antibiotics are a key and indispensable part of cancer treatment – many patients simply have to take them – and we owe it to them to better manage our use of the drugs [7] and address this crisis, which could roll back progress made to date in cancer treatment.

Oncologists are worried: Antibiotic resistance threatens modern cancer care

Actions We Must Take | Antimicrobial Resistance Fighter Coalition

 

Ways to slow down antimicrobial resistance

AMR is a serious global public health issue that needs to be addressed immediately and everyone has a role to play.

For steps that individuals, policymakers, healthcare works and the industry can take, please see below some actions that WHO recommends :

Individual_icon

Individuals

  • Only use antibiotics when prescribed by a certified health professional.
  • Never share or use leftover antibiotics.
  • Prevent infections by regularly washing hands, preparing food hygienically, avoiding close contact with sick people, practising safer sex, and keeping vaccinations up to date.
Policy_icon

Policy makers

  • Ensure a robust national action plan.
  • Improve surveillance of antibiotic-resistant infections.
  • Regulate and promote the appropriate use and disposal of quality medicines.
  • Make information available on the impact of antibiotic resistance.
Hospital_icon

Healthcare industry

  • Invest in research and development of new antibiotics, vaccines, diagnostics and other tools.
Doctor_icon

Health professionals

  • Prevent infections by ensuring your hands, instruments, and environment are clean.
  • Only prescribe and dispense antibiotics when they are needed.
  • Report antibiotic-resistant infections
  • Talk to your patients about how to take antibiotics correctly, antibiotic resistance and the dangers of misuse.
  • Talk to your patients about preventing infections.
agriculture_icon

Agriculture sector

  • Only give antibiotics to animals under veterinary supervision.
  • Not use antibiotics for growth promotion or to prevent diseases in healthy animals.
  • Vaccinate animals to reduce the need for antibiotics.
  • Support the implementation of effective interventions put in place to reduce the spread of AMR through the environment.

Source: WHO Factsheet on antibiotic resistance 

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Last update: 
Thursday 17 November 2022
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