Prof. N.N.Petrov Research Institute of Oncology was founded on the 15th of March 1927 in Leningrad within the frames of the multidisciplinary hospital named after I.I.Mechnikov. Professor N.N.Petrov, the founder and initiator of native oncology. He was appointed as the hospital’s first Director, then in 1966 his name was given to the Institute. The Institute has the state license for performing research, clinical and experimental activities in the field of oncology as well as educational, international and editorial work. The main issues of the investigations are as follows: etiology and pathogenesis of cancer, new methods of prevention and detection of cancer, surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and combined treatment of adult and pediatric cancer patients, along with follow-up and rehabilitation. The Institute’s hospital consists of 405 beds and is able to treat all main malignancies. A lot of tumors can be cured by endoscopic methods. This conservative, organ-saving surgery is being carried out on the early stages of cancer. The Institute’s main activities are the following: - study of carcinogenesis mechanisms, roles of endo- and exogenous factors influence on cancer development and a search the ways of its prevention; - investigations of biochemical, molecular and immunological factors which allow for the assessment of risk of cancer appearance and details of its development; - development of methods of biotherapy of solid tumors (dendrite cells vaccines, genotherapy, cytokines); - elaboration and introduction of new highly-effective drugs and high-quality methods, based on the last scientific achievements, and complex usage of new and standard techniques of cancer treatment; - study and introduction of new drugs and methods of improving tolerance of anticancer therapy and reducing its toxicity and increasing the quality of cancer patients’ lives; - improvement of organ-saving surgery aimed at improving the quality of life of cancer patients; - improvement of methods of adequate estimation and correct planning of the cancer control activities in Russia Petrov Research Institute of Oncology became a UICC member in January 1992.