Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) goes back to 1956, when the Atomic Energy Research Council was established. PAEC is now the largest S & T organization of the country, both in terms of scientific/technical manpower and the scope of its activities. Starting with a nuclear power reactor at Karachi (KANUPP) and an experimental research reactor at Nilore, Islamabad (PARR-I), the emphasis in the early years remained focussed on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. As the emphasis shifted towards concerns for national security, important projects were also initiated in this area. PAEC is charged with the promotion of, and research work on the peaceful uses of atomic energy in the fields of agriculture, medicine and industry, as well as the execution of development projects involving nuclear power stations and the generation of electric power, and to perform such other functions relating to the peaceful uses of atomic energy as may be agreed to between the commission and the government. In 1981, PAEC was accepted as full UICC member.