Due to the past decades of effort devoted to overcoming cancer, the outcome of cancer patients with early-stage disease has been greatly improved. However, the prognosis for patients with advanced disease remains poor. Indeed, for many years, cancer has been the leading cause of death in Japan. In order to bring about breakthroughs, they must develop novel therapies from a new perspective. Since 1970 Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease has been a full UICC member.